Bio-architecture is the design and construction of buildings in an ecologically – friendly manner. It wants to bring architecture closer to nature and human well-being through the use of materials and techniques that allow energy saving and that not pollute or damage human health.
During the period of industrialization, buildings of very poor quality were built in order to satisfy all housing requirements without any respect for the environment. Bio-architecture looks at the past when people built their houses with the few energy and technological resources they had, using what nature gave them such as wood and stone and paying attention to how to take advantage of heat and sunlight.
Bioarchitecture is based on the awareness that the environment cannot be exploited indefinitely and that the resources of the territory are not inexhaustible. It wants to design in a sustainable way, using solar energy in homes and materials such as stone, wood, plaster or other natural products rather than of chemical origins.
The use of solar energy allows to reduce the release of pollutants into the environment and greenhouse gas emissions. Balconies and windows are oriented mainly towards the south to accumulate heat and the isolation of the walls is also very important because it allows not to disperse the heat of the sun that enters through the external windows in winter and protects the house from the excessive summer heat. Bio-architecture pays attention to save drink water too and this is why it creates a double water network: one fed by the city aqueduct and one fed by the rainwater, which is collected and purified.
Green architecture was born in Germany towards the end of the seventies, after the world energy crisis in 1973 and spread in Italy in the 1990s.