The digestive system is the set of organs that have the task of absorbing the nutrients we are going to eat and eliminate waste substances. The digestive system is made up of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, small intestine and large intestine. All of these organs form what we call the digestive tract. Today we will talk about the mouth.
The mouth is the oral phase of digestion, it is made up of salivary glands, tongue and teeth.
The salivary glands are responsible for producing saliva, which is composed of 95% water and other elements; there are 3 types of salivary glands: 2 sublinguals – which are located under the tongue -, 2 parotids – which are located below the ears -, 2 submandibular, which are located under the mandible. The saliva’s function is to soften food with the help of the tongue, that is a voluntary muscle and mixes food with saliva. On the tongue there are also the taste buds, or sensory receptors that allow us to perceive tastes.
Finally, the mouth is made up of teeth, which in humans are of 4 types according to their purpose. The incisors bite, thanks to the canines we eat, premolars and molars grind food.