Racism is the belief that groups of humans possess different behavioral traits corresponding to inherited attributes and can be divided based on the superiority of one race over another. It may also mean prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against other people because they are of a different race or ethnicity. Modern variants of racism are often based on social perceptions of biological differences between peoples. These views can take the form of social actions, practices or beliefs, or political systems in which different races are ranked as inherently superior or inferior to each other, based on presumed shared inheritable traits, abilities, or qualities.

In terms of political systems that support the expression of prejudice or aversion to discriminatory practices or laws, racist ideology may include associated social aspects such as nativism and supremacism.

While the concepts of race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of equivalence in popular usage and older social science literature. “Ethnicity” is often used in a sense close to one traditionally attributed to “race”: the division of human groups based on qualities assumed to be essential or innate to the group.

Therefore, racism and racial discrimination are often used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial.

Sociologists, in general, recognize “race” as a social construct. This means that, although the concepts of race and racism are based on observable biological characteristics, any conclusions drawn about race on the basis of those observations are heavily influenced by cultural ideologies. Racism, as an ideology, exists in a society at both the individual and institutional levels. Race and race relations are prominent areas of study in sociology and economics. Much of the sociological literature focuses on white racism.

The term breed is not in any way used in biology for taxonomic classification but only in zootechnics and is applied only to domesticated animals. The differences between the so-called human “races” concern only the external aspect, modified to adapt to the environment as the human species spread throughout the world; obviously, the external aspect is the data that catches the eye the most. However, it involves a relatively insignificant fraction of the entire human genome.

This is why individuals who conspicuously disagree on a few genes, relating to skin color or eye cut, can then share much more complex and important genetic characteristics, even if not as striking.

Unfortunately, nowadays there are many cases of racism, which also occur in school, children derided and bullied only for the difference in the color of their skin; I hope that one day a solution can be found for all this, it is heartbreaking to know that today there are people so ignorant that they do not understand the gravity of the situation.

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Miano Alessandra


4°B2 Liceo Linguistico Enrico Medi Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto